Social Group In Bugs | Zoology for IAS, IFOS and different aggressive exams

Social Group In Bugs |  Zoology for IAS, IFOS and different aggressive exams

In bugs social life has advanced solely in two orders, specifically, Isoptera (termites) and Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) which make a nest and reside in colonies of 1000’s of people that follow division of labor and social interplay.


Termites have been the primary animals which began residing in colonies and developed a effectively organized social system about 300 million years in the past, a lot sooner than honey bees, ants and human beings. Though termites don’t exceed 3-4 mm in measurement, their queen is a 4 inch lengthy large that lies within the royal chamber immobile, since its legs are too small to maneuver its huge physique. Therefore employees should maintain all its day by day chores.

Termite queen is an egg-laying machine that reproduces at an astonishing fee of two eggs per second. Typically the queen of a termite colony can lay 6,000 to 7,000 eggs per day, and may reside for 15 to twenty years. the opposite castes, employees and troopers are extremely dedicated to the colony, working incessantly and tirelessly, demanding nothing in return from the society.

Troopers have lengthy dagger-like mandibles with which they defend their nest and employees chew the wooden to feed to the queen and larvae and develop fungus gardens for lean durations.

Nasutes are specialised troopers which focus on chemical warfare. They produce a jet of extremely corrosive chemical from their our bodies that may dissolve the pores and skin of enemies and can even help make galleries by means of the rocks.


The inhabitants of a wholesome bee hive in spring and honey circulate interval could include 40,000-80,000 people however the inhabitants declines in winter and excessive summer season. There’s exceptional order within the hive and no conflicts are seen among the many members.

Queen is one and a half occasions bigger than the employees and is the one fertile feminine within the hive. Queen retains the colony collectively by secreting a pheromone known as queen substance from its mandibular glands. In multiqueen colonies, younger queens after emergence try and sting and kill the rival queens.

Typically just one queen stays within the hive and different queens together with their military of employees swarm out and search new locations for constructing their very own hives. Queen takes one to a number of nuptial flights and after mating with drones settles within the hive and begins laying eggs.

Drones are haploid fertile males of the colony, whose solely job appears to be to mate with the queen and switch their sperms in her spermatheca. There are 2-3 dozen drones in a bee hive all of which energetically pursue a queen in her nuptial flight. As soon as the breeding season is over drones are pushed out of the hive by employees and die of hunger, since they’re unable to forage for themselves.

Employees in a hive are 20,000-80,000 in quantity, that are genetically sterile females that construct, keep and defend the hive. A employee attends to cleansing and sustaining the hive and feeding the larvae with honey and bee bread. It additionally secretes wax from the belly wax glands and participates in constructing honey comb cells. The employees operate as foragers of nectar and pollen and in later a part of life as water carriers, and finally die whereas working.


Bugs often known as wasps belong to household Vespidae, about 75,000 species of wasps are recognized, most of them parasitic or predators. Wasps are characterised by two pairs of membranous wings, three pairs of legs and an ovipositor which may be modified as sting in sterile females.

The stomach is narrowly connected to the thorax by a petiole. Along with their compound eyes, wasps even have three easy eyes often known as ocelli, organized in a triangle on the highest of the pinnacle. Females have diploid variety of chromosomes and develop from fertilized eggs. Males are haploid and develop from unfertilized eggs.

Yellow jackets and paper wasps prey on caterpillars and different larvae that may destroy crops. Wasps feed on flower nectar and play a job in pollination. Wasps might be solitary or colonial and social bugs that exist in colonies numbering as much as a number of thousand sturdy and construct nests.

The kind of nest produced by wasps can rely upon the species and placement. Many social wasps produce paper pulp nests on bushes, holes within the floor or in different such sheltered areas. Not like honey bees, wasps don’t have any wax producing glands.

Many as a substitute create a paper-like substance primarily from wooden pulp, which is gathered regionally from weathered wooden that’s softened by chewing and mixing with saliva. The pulp is then used to make combs with cells for brood rearing. Mud daubers and pollen wasps assemble mud cells in sheltered locations sometimes on the perimeters of partitions. Potter wasps equally construct vase-like nests from mud, usually with a number of cells, connected to the twigs of bushes or towards partitions.


Ants are cousins ​​of honeybees and wasps however whereas bees and wasps are diurnal and sleep within the night time, ants are busy working day and night time. Ants don’t have any wings, besides in sexual varieties in breeding season, and due to this fact their job of touring to lengthy distances in the hunt for meals may be very troublesome, however hooked on work as they’re and having never-say-die spirit, make them glorious foragers that work around the clock, apparently with none relaxation.

Ants have the best developed social system, subsequent solely to man, with no obvious battle seen within the society. A colony could have a number of thousand to over 500,000 people. The nests are in-built varied designs and are known as formicaria. Excessive devotion to obligation and “Work is worship” angle binds them collectively.

Like honeybees, they’ve polyethism, which suggests castes are specialised to hold out specialised duties within the colony. For instance, the queen has massive stomach to put a number of eggs (2-3 million in a 12 months), males fertilize her, employees have broad, sharp mandibles for reducing and chewing and the troopers have massive head that bears sharp dagger-like mandibles for combating. Employees and troopers are sterile females.

Ants have poor eyesight and are deaf however have a extremely refined chemical language for communication. They possess glands that secrete pheromones for communication. The mutual attraction among the many members of a colony is maintained by countless antennal caressing, licking and nuzzling throughout which they commerce meals, glandular secretions and enzymes, which known as tropholaxis.

Most ant species excavate nests within the floor or wooden however some assemble suspended nests on bushes made from earth, carton, wax or silk, whereas some, like safari ants, don’t construct nests in any respect. Desert ants construct crater-like nests or mounds by which they can keep temperature a lot under the skin warmth. The tropical ant Oecophylla makes nest by webbing the leaves with silken thread that’s produced by their larvae.